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Review Article

Nanogenerator-Based Self-Powered Sensors for Wearable and Implantable Electronics

Table 2

The characteristics of wearable and implantable TENGs.

Type featureMaterialSize (cm)Output voltage ()Function

TENGPolymer-metalPTFE-Al [73, 104, 105]
FEP-Cu [74]
Rubber-steel [75]
Kapton-Cu [94, 106]
PLGA-Au [96]
[73]
5 () [74]
[96]
[105]
[106]
116 [73], 17.5 [74], 200 [75], 1.52 [94], 28 [96], 45 [104], 10 [105]Power source [74, 75, 96, 104]
Sensor [73, 94, 105, 106]
Polymer-polymerPET-PTFE [83]
Nylon-PDMS [84]
PDMS-PVDF [87]
FEP-latex [97]
PDMS-FEP [98]
[83]
5 [87]
2 () [97]
[98]
300 [84], 14 [87], 14.5 [97], 14 [98]Power source [84, 87]
Sensor [83, 84, 97, 98]
Polymer-semiconductorPTFE-PVDF [85]
PVDF-PA6 [99]
[85]
[101]
[107]
1000 [99], 0.95 [101]Power source [99]
Sensor [85, 99, 101, 107, 108]
OthersPET-conductive fiber [88]
Silicon rubber-skin [90]
PDMS-graphene [91]
Glass-silk [109]
[88]
[90]
[109]
3 [88], 95 [90], 15.1 [91]Power source [90, 109]
Sensor [88, 91, 103, 109]