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Review Article

Nanogenerator-Based Self-Powered Sensors for Wearable and Implantable Electronics

Table 5

The summarization for the development of implantable sensors based on NGs.

Type featureBlood pressure sensorsCardiac and respiratory sensors

Size (cm)1.7() [71]
[105]
[151]
[58]
[70]

Sensitivity/output voltage1.195 mV·mmHg-1 [151]4.5 V [45]
17.8 V [58]
50 mV [70]
45 V [104]
187 V [152]

Position/accessoryHeart [71, 105]
Heart and femoral artery [151]
Heart, lung, diaphragm [45]
Heart [58, 152]
Diaphragm [70]
Between heart, pericardium [104]

FlexibilityYes [71, 105, 151]Yes [45, 58, 70, 104, 152]

StretchabilityNone [71, 105, 151]None [45, 57, 58, 70, 104, 152]

Types of nanogeneratorPENG [71]
TENG [105, 151]
PENG [45, 58, 70, 104]
TENG [152]