Research / 2020 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

Endothelium-Mimicking Multifunctional Coating Modified Cardiovascular Stents via a Stepwise Metal-Catechol-(Amine) Surface Engineering Strategy

Figure 1

Scheme of metal-catechol-amine network- (MCAN-) based coating strategy for engineering endothelium-mimicking cardiovascular stent coating. (a) Functions of healthy ECs. HS on ECs has anticoagulant function through binding with antithrombin III (ATIII) to inhibit thrombin molecules existing in a coagulation system. The surface HS can also increase eNOS activity and inhibit ROS generation by polymorph nuclear and mononuclear leucocytes. Arterial ECs synthesize the vasodilator NO via eNOS and help to keep an anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant microenvironment. NO diffuses across the platelet or SMC membrane to activate the heterodimeric sGC. Then, sGC leads to increased expression of cGMP, further helping on inhibition of platelet activation as well as SMC proliferation, hinders inflammation and thrombus formation, and prevents ISR. (b) The MCAN-based coating strategy inspired by native endothelium function. The delicate organization of metal ion-Cu2+ in the MCAN gives GPx-like activity to the modified surface while a large amount of surface primary amine groups allows sufficient covalent grafting of heparin.