Endothelium-Mimicking Multifunctional Coating Modified Cardiovascular Stents via a Stepwise Metal-Catechol-(Amine) Surface Engineering Strategy
Surface grafting of heparin on the CuII-DA/HD coatings and NO catalytic release. (a) Schematic illustration (a) and QCM-D real-time monitoring (b) of heparin grafting onto the CuII-DA/HD-coated surface using carbodiimide chemistry. (c) Schematic diagram of NO catalytic release mechanics. The CuII chelation endowed the coating with GPx-like property to decompose the GSNO that exists in the blood into NO at the interface. (d) NO catalytic production due to heparin-conjugated CuII-DA/HD coating, determined in PBS (pH 7.4) supplied with 10 μM GSH and 10 μM GSNO at 37°C. (e) The S (left, blue) and Cu (right, red) signals resulting from Hep@NO-25 coatings after continuous exposure to GSNO solution (10 μM in PBS (pH 7.4) with 10 μM GSH) for up to 60 days. (f) Retained heparin activity and (g) NO catalytic generation after different periods of continuous Hep@NO samples exposure to donor solution. The heparin activity was determined using the anti-FXa assay. Data exhibited as the ().