Endothelium-Mimicking Multifunctional Coating Modified Cardiovascular Stents via a Stepwise Metal-Catechol-(Amine) Surface Engineering Strategy
The growth behaviors of vascular cells on the endothelium-mimicking surface. (a) Fluorescence staining images of HUASMCs on bare 316L SS, Hep, NO, and Hep@NO coatings after 1 day of culture. (b) Corresponding concentration of cGMP in HUASMCs after 2 hours of culture. (c) Bioactivity of HUASMCs determined using CCK-8 assay after 1 and 3 days. (d) Fluorescence staining of HUVECs on the different surfaces (green: actin, blue: cell nuclei). (e) Proliferation of HUVECs after 1 and 3 days of culture determined using CCK-8 assay. (f) Gene expression of ECs after 3 days of culture (PECAM, VWF, eNOS, and FGF) determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results were normalized by housekeeping gene GAPDH. (g) Co-culture of ECs/SMCs (HUVECs: green; HUASMCs: red) on the samples after 24 hours. (h) The counts of ECs (left, green) and SMCs (right, red) and (i) ratio of ECs/SMCs on samples surface. The data were collected from more than eight images. Data exhibited as the (,, or ) and analyzed through a one-way ANOVA; ,, and compared to 316L SS; #,##, and ### compared to Hep; &,&&, and &&& compared to NO.