Endothelium-Mimicking Multifunctional Coating Modified Cardiovascular Stents via a Stepwise Metal-Catechol-(Amine) Surface Engineering Strategy
Ex vivo and in vivo hemocompatibility of the endothelium-mimicking surfaces. (a) Ex-vivo circulation thrombogenicity assay of Hep, NO, and Hep@NO samples determined by an arteriovenous shunt model with the supplement of NO donor. (b) Cross-sectional tube images after 2 hours of blood flow without additional heparin. (c) Thrombus formation on 316 L SS samples before and after Hep, NO and Hep@NO functionalization. (d) SEM, (e) thrombus weight, (f) occlusion rates of circuits, and (g) rate of blood flow by the end of the circulation experiments due to different treatments. (h) The bare 316L SS cardiovascular stents and Hep@NO-coated stents were placed at the iliac artery under angiographic control. The stents were harvested after 2 hours to check the hemocompatibility. (i) SEM results of the harvested stent. Data exhibited as the ( or ) and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA; ,, and compared to 316L SS; #,##, and ### compared to Hep; &,&&, and &&& compared to NO.