Endothelium-Mimicking Multifunctional Coating Modified Cardiovascular Stents via a Stepwise Metal-Catechol-(Amine) Surface Engineering Strategy
Stent implantation in vivo. (a) CLSM images (green: CD31, red: F-actin, blue: cell nucleus) reveal the endothelialization on the stents (outlined by the dashed lines). (b) The morphology of Hep@NO-coated and bare stents after implantation for 1 and 3 months, evaluated by SEM. (c) Influence of implanted stents on ISR, determined through histomorphometric analysis. (d) Percentage of stenosis and (e) mean neointimal area analysis indicated significant reduction of ISR by the Hep@NO coating. Gene expression of the harvested tissue with stent detected by RT-qPCR. (f) EC-related genes: PECAM, eNOS, and VWF; (g) SMC-related genes: α-SMA, cRBP-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); (h) gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and M2 marker IL-10. Data presented as the ( or ) and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA; ,, and .