Bacterial Template Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanospindles for Glutathione Detection and Enhanced Cancer-Specific Chemo-Chemodynamic Therapy
Dose-dependent growth inhibition curves of (a) MCF-7/MCF-10A, (b) A549/HPAEpiC, and (c) HepG2/L02 cells after exposure to EMD NSs at varied DOX concentrations for 24 h. (d–f) Corresponding IC50 values of EMD NSs for the above three pairs of cancer/normal cells. (g) Viabilities of MCF-7 cells treated with varied concentrations of EM NSs. (h) Concentration-dependent cytotoxicities of free DOX and EMD NSs against MCF-7 cells. DOX and EM NS concentrations were abbreviated as [DOX] and [EM NSs], respectively, in (a–c, g, and h). Effects of free DOX, EM NSs, and EMD NSs on (i) caspase-3 level, (j) apoptosis/necrosis, and (k) cell cycle distribution of MCF-7 cells. (l) Flow cytometry analysis results of cellular ROS levels after various treatments as indicated. The cells without any treatment were set as the control group. (m) Images and corresponding statistical histogram of western blot results of P-gp expression (with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as the loading control) of normoxic cells, hypoxic cells, and hypoxic cells treated with EM NSs for 24 h. ,, and .