Research / 2021 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Biopolymer Nanofibers for Nanogenerator Development

Figure 2

Fabrication of biopolymer nanofibers by exfoliation. SEM images of (a) nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and (b) nanofibrillated chitin (NFCh). (c) AFM image of TEMPO-oxidized NFC. TEM images of (d) cotton cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), (e) tunicate CNC, and (f) chitin nanocrystal (ChNC). SEM images of nanofibrillated silk (NFS) derived from (g) spider silk and (h) silkworm silk fabricated by high-intensity ultrasonication. (i) SEM image of NFS produced by milling combined with homogenization. SEM images of NFS fabricated by partially dissolving the degummed silk in (j) HFIP and (k) sodium hypochlorite before ultrasonication. (l) AFM image of NFS prepared by treating the degummed silk with HFIP for 72 h. (a) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [74], copyright 2007 Biomacromolecules. (b) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [76], copyright 2009 Biomacromolecules. (c) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [82], copyright 2009 Biomacromolecules. (d) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [71], copyright 2014 ChemSusChem. (e) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [86], copyright 2008 Biomacromolecules. (f) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [88], copyright 2007 Biomacromolecules. (g) and (h) are reproduced with permission from Ref. [91], copyright 2007 Applied Physics Letters. (i) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [92], copyright 2019 ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. (j) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [93], copyright 2016 Advanced Materials. (k) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [94], copyright 2018 Advanced Functional Materials. (l) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [99], copyright 2020 ACS Materials Letters.

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