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Review Article

Biopolymer Nanofibers for Nanogenerator Development

Figure 5

Development of NFC/NFCh-derived nanogenerators (NGs). (a) Schematic diagram showing the assembly of a TEMPO-oxidized NFC film-derived TENG. (b) Schematic diagram showing the construction of an NFC/cellulose microfiber (CMF)/silver composite for a TENG. Schematic illustration of (c) the reaction mechanism of TEMPO-oxidized NFC and polyethylenimine (PEI) and (d) the assembly of a TEMPO-oxidized NFC/PEI aerogel film-derived TENG. (e) Schematic of an all-printed 3D NFC aerogel-derived TENG. (f) Schematic of a gear-like NFC-derived TENG. (g) Digital image of a flexible NFC/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) aerogel film. (h) Schematic of an NFC/PDMS aerogel film-derived PENG. Digital images of (i) an NFCh film-derived PENG and (j) the PENG undergoing a flexibility test. (k) Schematic illustration of the voltage induced by the directional movement and neutralization of free ions within hydrated charged nanochannels of an NFC aerogel. (l) Schematic illustration of an NFC/graphene oxide (GO) membrane-derived osmotic energy harvesting system. (a) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [52], copyright 2016 Nano Energy. (b) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [179], copyright 2018 Advanced Functional Materials. (c) and (d) are reproduced with permission from Ref. [180], copyright 2018 Nano Energy. (e) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [181], copyright 2019 Nano Energy. (f) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [177], copyright 2019 Nano Energy. (g) and (h) are reproduced with permission from Ref. [54], copyright 2016 Nano Energy. (i) and (j) are reproduced with permission from Ref. [183], copyright 2018 Journal of Materials Chemistry A. (k) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [55], copyright 2020 Nano Energy. (l) is reproduced with permission from Ref. [185], copyright 2020 Materials Horizons.

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