Noninvasive Ultrasound Stimulation of Ventral Tegmental Area Induces Reanimation from General Anaesthesia in Mice
Experimental design and ultrasound parameters. (a) Arousal experiment process. Mice received 2.0% isoflurane by inhalation for 20 min to induce deep anaesthesia. Then, the isoflurane dose was adjusted to 0.7%–0.8%, which maintained the LORR. This isoflurane dose was continued until the end of the experiment. Ultrasound stimulation was initiated after 40 min of anaesthesia and continued for two doses of 30 min or until the righting reflex behavior returned. (b) Schematic diagram of ultrasound-induced reanimation from general anaesthesia. (c) Ultrasound stimulation parameters: ,,,, and . (d) Acoustic pressure distributions in the transverse and longitudinal planes in the absence and presence of mouse skull bone.