Noninvasive Ultrasound Stimulation of Ventral Tegmental Area Induces Reanimation from General Anaesthesia in Mice
Effects of ultrasound stimulation of the VTA on isoflurane sensitivity, induction, and emergence time. (a) Behavioral scores of the sham and US groups at different acoustic pressures (without skull). Compared to the sham group, the US group has a much higher score (,,, independent-sample -test). (b) Ultrasound stimulation of the VTA delays the time to anaesthesia induction in mice. The time of descent into anaesthesia is significantly prolonged in the US group compared with the sham group (,,, independent-sample -test). (c) Dose-response curves of mice in the US group (red line) and sham group (black line), showing the progressive increment in the proportion of mice that lost the righting reflex as a function of isoflurane concentration. The EC50 is larger for the mice in the US group (squares) than for the sham mice (circles). The horizontal axis is the dose of isoflurane as a percentage of the atmosphere concentration (%atm) (). (d) Emergence time from exposure to 1% isoflurane of the sham and US groups (,,, independent-sample -test).