Research / 2021 / Article / Fig 1

Perspective

Next-Generation Prosthetic Hand: from Biomimetic to Biorealistic

Figure 1

Illustration of neural control of a human hand (a) and biomimetic control of a prosthetic hand (b). Before amputation, the brain controls human hand through an intact neuromuscular reflex system along with proprioceptive and cutaneous sensory afferents. In prosthetic control, the neuromuscular reflex process is amiss, and the sensory feedback information provided may be limited and incompatible to what is acquainted to the brain. Thus, it is essential to restore the neuromuscular reflex process and natural sensory feedback for prosthetic hand. Visual information determines hand positioning and opening. Abbreviations: HD-EMG: high-density EMG; ETS: evoked tactile sensation. Part (a) is modified from Figure 2 in [10] with permission.