Research / 2021 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Afterglow Carbon Dots: From Fundamentals to Applications

Figure 1

Selective milestones in the development of afterglow CDs in the last decade. (a) Deng et al. first reported the observation of RTP of CDs after being incorporated in a PVA matrix in 2013 (adapted and copyright permission [25], Royal Society of Chemistry). (b) Dong et al. observed a similar role of inorganic salts, such as KAl(SO4)2·x(H2O), in the activation of the RTP of CDs in 2015 (adapted and copyright permission [27], Royal Society of Chemistry). (c) Liu et al. demonstrated the observation of long-lived thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) of CDs after being encapsulated into zeolite matrices via a general “dots-in-zeolites” strategy in 2017 (adapted and copyright permission [28], American Association for Advancement of Science). (d) Li and coworkers described the water-induced RTP of CDs due to the formation of hydrogen bonding networks between CDs and cyanuric acid in 2018 (adapted and copyright permission [29], Nature Publishing Group). (e) Jiang et al.’s group reported the preparation of self-protected RTP CDs via microwave-assisted heating of a mixture of EAM and phosphoric acid in 2018 (adapted and copyright permission [30], Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). (f) Li et al. made the demonstration of achieving multiple RTP color output of CDs via encapsulation of CDs with different compositions into boric acid matrix in 2019 (adapted and copyright permission [39], Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). (g) Jiang and coworkers reported the observation of aggregation-induced RTP of CDs with enhancing the water fraction in a THF dispersion of CDs at room temperature in 2019 (adapted and copyright permission [40], Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA).