Research / 2021 / Article / Fig 11

Review Article

Afterglow Carbon Dots: From Fundamentals to Applications

Figure 11

(a–c) Anticounterfeiting application of afterglow CDs on the basis of the long-lived and color-tunable attributes of their afterglow luminescence (adapted and copyright permission [45] (a), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; [57] (b), American Chemical Society; [39] (c) Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). (d) Anticounterfeiting on the basis of heating-assisted conversion of fluorescence CDs to phosphorescence CDs (adapted and copyright permission [76], Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). (e) Anticounterfeiting based on multimode emission of CDs, namely, fluorescence, upconversion emission, and phosphorescence (adapted and copyright permission [50], Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA). (f, g) Anticounterfeiting based on the use of temperature- and excitation-dependent afterglow luminescence of CDs (adapted and copyright permission [97] (f) and [44] (g), Royal Society of Chemistry).