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Review Article

Afterglow Carbon Dots: From Fundamentals to Applications

Table 1

The dependence of afterglow attributes of CDs on their physic parameters and the synthetic conditions.

Precursors (°C)ElementsCarbonization methodSize (nm)Afterglow colorLifetime (s)RemarksRefs

400C, N, OSolid<5Green (500 nm)0.380CDs@PVA[25]
150C, N, OSolution3Green (500 nm)0.655CDs@KAl(SO4)2·x(H2O)[27]
250C, N, OSolution3.5Green (500 nm)0.005CDs@polyurethane[41]
130C, N, OSolution5Green 525 nm1.8aCDs@SiO2[42]
260C, N, OSolution3.41Green (490 nm)0.93CDs-biuret@urea[43]
255C, N, OSolution2.0Blue (430 nm)b1.11CDs-biuret@urea[44]
Green (500 nm)c0.53
250C, N, OSolution4.8Blue (480 nm)0.687dCDs@cyanuric acid[29]
200C, N, OSolution5.4Blue-green (494 nm)0.658CD powder[45]
200C, N, OSolution3.1Green (520 nm)1.64CDs@SiO2[46]
240C, N, OSolution5.0Green (520 nm)1.26CDs@SiO2[47]
200C, N, O, FSolution4.75Green (455 nm)1.045CDs[48]
200C, N, OSolution4.1Green (529 nm)0.269CD powder[49]
Green (529 nm)0.664CDs@melamine
180C, N, OSolutionGreen (506 nm)0.456CDs@PVA[50]
C, N, O, PSolution3.4Green (535 nm)1.46CD powder[30]
C, N, O, PSolution1.83Green (518 nm)0.82CDs on paper[51]
200C, OSolution1.4Green (530 nm)1.6CDs@boric acid[39]
260C, OSolution4.3Yellow (560 nm)0.184CD powder[40]
350C, N, OSolid2.33Green (566 nm)0.701CDs@molten salt[52]
180C, N, OSolution3.7Blue (430 nm)0.350CDs@zeolite[28]
350C, N, OSolidGreen (520 nm)1.64CDs@SiO2[46]
350C, N, O, FSolidGreen (455 nm)1.045CDs[48]

aThe lifetime was obtained via a single exponential fitting. bExcitation at 254 nm. cExcitation at 365 nm. dLifetime measurement was conducted in 70% water.