Design and synthesis of the MXene-embedded PVDF membrane. (a) Schematic illustration of the formation procedure of the Ti3C2Tx MXene flakes (etching and ultrasonication) and the preparation of the MXene-embedded PVDF membrane by blade coating. (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the fabricated MXene flakes. Scale bar, 5 μm. (c) Digital photographs of the MXene/PVDF composite solution with different doping content of MXene ranging from 0% to 25%. (d, e) Images of the prepared MXene-embedded PVDF membrane with different doping content.