Characterization of the MXene/PVDF membrane. (a) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey spectra of the Ti3C2Tx MXene. (b, c) C 1s (b) and Ti 2p (c) spectra of the MXene. (d) Cross-section view of the MXene/PVDF membrane with doping content of 25%. Scale bar, 30 μm. (e) Raman spectra of the MXene, PVDF, and MXene/PVDF composite film with different doping content ranging from 5% to 25%. (f) X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the MXene, PVDF, and MXene/PVDF composite film at different loadings.