Extreme temperature tolerance and self-healing performance of the PAM-r-MVIC-2. (a) Temperature dependence of ionic conductivity from -20 to 100°C. (b) Relative resistance variation at various temperatures. (c) Photograph showing high flexibility at a low temperature. (d) Photograph showing the cutting and self-healing processes of PAM-r-MVIC-2 when connected to a circuit for lightening up a bump. (e) Resistance before and after cutting and self-healing. (f) Relative resistance variation after cutting and self-healing processes for various times.