Self-Navigated 3D Acoustic Tweezers in Complex Media Based on Time Reversal
Schematic of self-navigated 3D acoustic tweezers in a complex medium based on the time reversal principle. The 3D acoustic tweezers were realized in water based on a 256-element ultrasonic matrix array. The 3D acoustic tweezer system is a multichannel ultrasonic pulser-receiver, which can generate various acoustic fields in real time; thus, it is feasible to manipulate the particles. Further, this system can also transmit imaging pulses and generate 3D ultrasonic images using imaging echo signals (black loops in the middle) to track the particle position (). The navigation system refers to a high-performance workstation capable of running a simulation program, which dictates acoustic tweezer beamforming. The red loops indicate the process of time-reversal based 3D acoustic tweezers in heterogeneous media (such as manipulating the particle in a 3D trajectory through an ex vivo human skull), wherein complex medium information (red dashed line) is imported to the navigation system for calculation. The blue loops indicate the process of obtaining self-navigated 3D acoustic tweezers in water with the 3D manipulation trajectory (from through to , blue dashed line) as input.