Editing the Shape Morphing of Monocomponent Natural Polysaccharide Hydrogel Films
Various types of cooperative shape morphing and actuation. (a–d) Artificial claw (,,), artificial windmill (,,), an artificial horn (,,;,), and artificial flower (,,;,,;,,) are customized via modulating the geometries of CS hydrogel films. (e) Actuation of artificial CS hydrogel claws in aqueous solutions with different pH values (pH 3, pH 5, pH 9, and pH 11). The scale bars are 2.5 mm. (f) The bending angles CS hydrogel films decrease as increasing pH due to the protonation/deprotonation of CS chains.