PL intensity of MAPI films irradiated by e-beam with various dose. (a) PL intensity mapping of MAPI arrays irradiated by e-beam, named as MAPI1-1 to MAPI10-10. Dose for MAPI1-1 is 50 μC/cm2 and increased by 250 μC/cm2 for the next square. (b) PL emission peak mapping of MAPI1-1 to MAPI10-10. Scale bar: 5 μm. (c) PL emission spectra of MAPI0 to MAPI9-1. (d) Relationship between PL emission peak and e-beam dose. (e) Relationship between PL emission intensity and e-beam dose. Inset shows PL spectra of MAPI0 (black) and MAPI6-4 (orange).