The Warming Climate Aggravates Atmospheric Nitrogen Pollution in Australia
emission to air as compared to water in Australia. ER: emission ratio. Units of these numbers are Tg N yr-1. The green box indicates that climate in Australia enhances N emissions to air other than water. “Livestock” includes both grazing and feedlot emissions; “Deposition” includes both dry and wet N deposition to fresh surface water; “Cropland” includes both dryland and irrigated land emissions; “Industry & Transport” includes both industry and transport emissions; “Human & Nature” includes all emissions from human, aquaculture, forest, pets, urban green-land, and waste treatment sectors. Livestock is the largest emission source, with 1.2 Tg release to the atmosphere per year and 1.0 Tg emissions to the hydrosphere per year. Climate in Australia enhances N emissions to air other than to water. High solar radiation increases water evaporation, surface temperature, and air turbulence, all promoting N emissions to air; high temperature increases NH3 volatilization rate because of its solubility and dissociation thermodynamics; low precipitation indicates little N infiltration, reducing N emissions to water.