The Warming Climate Aggravates Atmospheric Nitrogen Pollution in Australia
Spatial patterns of emissions to the air across Australia in 2013 and validation: (a) NH3 emission; (b) simulated tropospheric NH3 column; (c) satellite observation of NH3 column; (d) NOx emission; (e) simulated tropospheric NO2 column; (f) satellite observation of NO2 column; (g) N2O emission; (h) simulated ground-level PM2.5 concentrations; (i) simulated N deposition. The colored dots in (h) represent the ground-level monitoring results of PM2.5. Simulated NH3, NO2, and PM2.5 concentrations were based on emission data from the CHANS, which further input to the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry transport model for simulation. N deposition rates were simulated by satellite columns combining the vertical profiles from MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4) and mixed effect models based on NO2, NH3 columns, and meteorological factors. The basic map of Australia is adopted from Natural Earth (https://www.naturalearthdata.com/).