Research / 2021 / Article / Fig 3

Research Article

The Warming Climate Aggravates Atmospheric Nitrogen Pollution in Australia

Figure 3

Comparison of emission factors and associated cost and benefit between Australia and other countries: (a) air/water emission ratio; (b) livestock housing and manure storage NH3 emission factors; (c) manure application NH3 emission factors; (d) atmospheric emission per livestock production; (e) health cost per livestock production; (f) benefit-cost ratio of livestock industry (including feedlot and animal grazing). “Emission per production” represents the atmospheric N emission for each kg N accumulated in livestock products; “Health cost per production” indicates the health cost related to atmospheric N emission for each kg N accumulated in livestock products; “Benefit-cost ratio” is the ratio of income and total cost (including feed and health damage) in livestock industry.