A Printable and Conductive Yield-Stress Fluid as an Ultrastretchable Transparent Conductor
Formulation of yield-stress fluid as printable ink. (a) Ionically conductive liquid loaded in a vial (top) and squeezed through a needle (bottom). (b) Yield-stress fluid loaded in a vial (top) and extruded through a needle (bottom). (c) Viscosity versus shear rate for the conductive liquid and the yield-stress fluid. (d) Storage moduli () and loss moduli () as a function of shear stress. (e) Optical image of a presentative rose-shaped pattern printed on a TPU substrate. (f) Optical and optical microscope images of an array of line-shaped features. (g) Optical images of pigeon-shaped patterns on various elastomer substrates including SIS (left), silicone (middle), and PVDF-HFP (right).