Yield-stress fluid electrodes as transparent conductors. (a) Transmittance spectra of electrodes with different sheet resistance in the wavelength range from 400 to 1000 nm. Inset: Image of a representative transparent electrode with a sheet resistance of 400 Ω. (b) Optical transmittance (at 550 nm) versus sheet resistance for electrodes based on the yield-stress fluid. (c) Conductivity of the conductive liquid and the yield-stress fluid. The conductivity of the original 10 M LiCl aqueous solution is marked by the dotted line for comparison. (d) Water loss as a function of storage time in an environmental chamber at 23°C and 20% relative humidity for yield-stress fluids based on LiCl and NaCl. Inset: Image of a LiCl-based electrode acquired at 0 and 50 h. Scale bar: 1 cm.