Mussel-Inspired and Bioclickable Peptide Engineered Surface to Combat Thrombosis and Infection
Blood analysis by ex vivo blood circulation. (a) Circulation model on rabbit for blood analysis. Blood parameters including (b) activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), (c) (an integral marker for the prothrombin activation), (d) the number of platelets (PLT), (e) C3a (C3 cleavage fragment, indicating the classic or alternative way to activate the complement system), (f) c-reactive protein (CRP), (g) white blood cells (WBC), (h) IL-10 (a recognized inflammatory and immunosuppressor), (i) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), (j) the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and (k) the kidney parameter serum creatinine (Scr) were detected to reveal the hemocompatibility and liver/kidney safety after exposing the bare and Cu-DOTA& grafted catheters to the circulating blood. Data are presented as ().