Research / 2022 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Material Engineering in Gut Microbiome and Human Health

Figure 2

The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis. Brain signaling can both regulate and be influenced by the gut microbiome, through intermediate gut mucosa, enteric nervous system, and immune system or by systemic circulation of gut microbiota-regulated factors. In parallel, multiple gut-to-brain signals, including neurotransmitters, protein aggregates (e.g., α-synuclein and β-amyloid), nanoparticles, and exosomes can also mediate gut-to-brain communication. Alteration of the gut microbiome can disrupt normal gut-to-brain signaling and has been associated with multiple neurological disease pathways, as shown at the bottom left.