Research / 2022 / Article / Fig 4

Review Article

Material Engineering in Gut Microbiome and Human Health

Figure 4

Gut-on-chip for modeling gut microbiome. (a) Design of the gut-on-chip device with microbiome, mucus, epithelium, oxygen gradients, and oxygen sensors. T: top layer; B: bottom layer. (b) Oxygen level measurement in the bottom channel of the chip showing the formation of an oxygen gradient in the mucus layer and anaerobic environment. (c, d) Growth of microbiota (B. fragilis) in the anaerobic environment of gut-on-chip (c) and comparison to nonaerobic environment (d). (e) Tubular minigut formed in a collagen gel embedded and laser bladed gut-on-chip device. Compared to normal intestinal organoids, tubular minigut has open lumen channels allowing for fluid flow and gut microbiota integration. Most importantly, miniguts showed higher maturity with enteroendocrine cells, M-like cells that are not normally existent in regular organoids. (f) Tubular minigut with gut microbiota (oocytes) seeded for the study of prolonged parasite infection (image on the left). Without infection (image in the middle), macromolecules such as FITC-dextran are not permeable through the epithelial layer. After long-term infection (image on the right), the gut epithelium becomes permeable, thereby recapitulating the in vivo disease pathology. Images adapted from reference [94].