Integrated Au-Nanoroded Biosensing and Regulating Platform for Photothermal Therapy of Bradyarrhythmia
Photothermal regulation effect on cardiomyocytes characterized by mRNA sequencing. (a) Schematic diagram of mRNA sequencing. After treating with irradiation, cardiomyocytes are lysed and analyzed by mRNA sequencing. (b) Principal component (PC) plot indicates technical replicates in each goup are similar (). (c–e) Volcano plots indicates upregulated and downregulated genes whose value is <0.001 and in each group (blank substrate, Au-planar, and Au-nanoroded) . The number of genes that are upregulated (red) or downregulated (green) is shown in the each plot. (f) Venn plot shows the differential genes expression among different groups. Heat map displays the changes of differential gene expression ( value < 0.001). (g) Heat map of HSP70 shows the related genes with different expression levels ( value < 0.001). (h) Fluorescent images of nuclei and HSP70 in cardiomyocytes cultured on the blank substrate and Au-nanoroded substrate treated with laser irradiation. Significant changes of gene expression induced by photothermal therapy. (i) Enrichment rate and of genes in the enriched gene ontologies (GOs) which are highly related in regulation of cardiac muscle cell contraction, regulation of circadian rhythm, regulation of heart rate, regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction, positive regulation of calcium ion transport, and endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. (j) Heat map of genes encoding ion channel including Na2+ channel, K+ channel, Ca2+ channel, transporter genes, and Ca2+ regulatory protein genes.