Research / 2022 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Continuity Scaling: A Rigorous Framework for Detecting and Quantifying Causality Accurately

Figure 2

Illustration of system dynamics before and after embedding for Case II. In the left panel, the arrows describe how the original systems is equivalent to the system after embedding. In the right panel, causation between the internal variables and can be ascertained by detecting the causation between the variables and reconstructed from measured time series.