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Research Article

Continuity Scaling: A Rigorous Framework for Detecting and Quantifying Causality Accurately

Figure 4

Detecting causation in the unidirectionally coupled Lorenz system. The results are for different values of () and sampling rate . (a, b) Color-coded values of the slopes and , respectively. The integration time step is and the embedding parameters are , with ( or ). See Section III and Table S9 of SI for all the other parameters including the time series lengths used in the simulations.