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Research Article

Continuity Scaling: A Rigorous Framework for Detecting and Quantifying Causality Accurately

Figure 7

The causal effect from China to other countries of the COVID-19 pandemic detected by continuity scaling between stages and . Here, stage is from January 22 2020 to April 30 2020, and stage is from May 1 2020 to February 15 2021. For those detected causal links between all countries, refer to Section III.E and Figure S18 of SI. These maps are for illustration only.