2021 Journal Impact Factor: 11.036

Research ranks #10 among 73 journals in the multidisciplinary category in Web of Science. The journal also has a JCI of 1.58 and a CiteScore of 10.5.

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Journal profile

The open access journal Research, published in association with CAST, publishes innovative, wide-ranging research in life sciences, physical sciences, engineering and applied science.

Editorial board

Research's Editorial Board includes international experts in fields ranging from life sciences to physical sciences. Tianhong Cui of University of Minnesota and Weimin Bao of China Association for Science and Technology serve as the Editors-in-Chief of the journal.

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Research Article

Determination of Double Beta Decay Half-Life of 136Xe with the PandaX-4T Natural Xenon Detector

Precise measurement of two-neutrino double beta decay (DBD) half-life is an important step for the searches of Majorana neutrinos with neutrinoless double beta decay. We report the measurement of DBD half-life of 136Xe using the PandaX-4T dual-phase Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with 3.7-tonne natural xenon and the first 94.9-day physics data release. The background model in the fiducial volume is well constrained in situ by events in the outer active region. With a 136Xe exposure of 15.5 kg-year, we establish the half-life as years. This is the first DBD half-life measurement with natural xenon and demonstrates the physics capability of a large-scale liquid xenon TPC in the field of rare event searches.

Research Article

ATP5O Hypo-crotonylation Caused by HDAC2 Hyper-Phosphorylation Is a Primary Detrimental Factor for Downregulated Phospholipid Metabolism under Chronic Stress

Objective. Chronic stress (CS)-induced abnormal metabolism and other subsequent aspects of abnormality are threatening human health. Little is known regarding whether and how protein post-translational-modifications (PTMs) correlate with abnormal metabolism under CS. The aim of this study was to address this issue and also identify novel key protein PTM. Methods. First, we screened which pan-PTM had significant change between control and CS female mice and whether clinical CS females had similar pan-PTM change. Second, we performed quantitative PTM-omics and metabolomics to verify the correlation between abnormal protein PTMs and atypical metabolism. Third, we performed quantitative phospho-omics to identify the key PTM-regulating enzyme and investigate the interaction between PTM protein and PTM-regulating enzyme. Fourth, we attempted to rectify the abnormal metabolism by correcting the activity of the PTM-regulating enzyme. Finally, we examined whether the selected key protein was also correlated with stress scores and atypical metabolism in clinical women. Results. We initially found that multiple tissues of CS female mice have downregulated pan-crotonylation, and verified that the plasma of clinical CS females also had downregulated pan-crotonylation. Then we determined that ATP5O-K51 crotonylation decreased the most and also caused gross ATP5O decrement, whereas the plasma of CS mice had downregulated phospholipids. Next, downregulating ATP5O crotonylation partially recapitulated the downregulated phospholipid metabolism in CS mice. Next, we verified that HDAC2-S424 phosphorylation determined its decrotonylation activity on ATP5O-K51. Furthermore, correcting HDAC2 hyper-phosphorylation recovered the gross ATP5O level and partially rescued the downregulated phospholipid metabolism in CS mice. Finally, the ATP5O level was also significantly lower and correlated with high stress scores and downregulated phospholipid metabolism in clinical female plasma. Conclusion. This study discovered a novel PTM mechanism involving two distinct types of PTM in CS and provided a novel reference for the clinical precautions and treatments of CS.

Research Article

The Regulatory Effect of Braided Silk Fiber Skeletons with Differential Porosities on In Vivo Vascular Tissue Regeneration and Long-Term Patency

The development of small-diameter vascular grafts that can meet the long-term patency required for implementation in clinical practice presents a key challenge to the research field. Although techniques such as the braiding of scaffolds can offer a tunable platform for fabricating vascular grafts, the effects of braided silk fiber skeletons on the porosity, remodeling, and patency in vivo have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we used finite element analysis of simulated deformation and compliance to design vascular grafts comprised of braided silk fiber skeletons with three different degrees of porosity. Following the synthesis of low-, medium-, and high-porosity silk fiber skeletons, we coated them with hemocompatible sulfated silk fibroin sponges and then evaluated the mechanical and biological functions of the resultant silk tubes with different porosities. Our data showed that high-porosity grafts exhibited higher elastic moduli and compliance but lower suture retention strength, which contrasted with low-porosity grafts. Medium-porosity grafts offered a favorable balance of mechanical properties. Short-term in vivo implantation in rats indicated that porosity served as an effective means to regulate blood leakage, cell infiltration, and neointima formation. High-porosity grafts were susceptible to blood leakage, while low-porosity grafts hindered graft cellularization and tended to induce intimal hyperplasia. Medium-porosity grafts closely mimicked the biomechanical behaviors of native blood vessels and facilitated vascular smooth muscle layer regeneration and polarization of infiltrated macrophages to the M2 phenotype. Due to their superior performance and lack of occlusion, the medium-porosity vascular grafts were evaluated in long-term (24-months) in vivo implantation. The medium-porosity grafts regenerated the vascular smooth muscle cell layers and collagen extracellular matrix, which were circumferentially aligned and resembled the native artery. Furthermore, the formed neoarteries pulsed synchronously with the adjacent native artery and demonstrated contractile function. Overall, our study underscores the importance of braided silk fiber skeleton porosity on long-term vascular graft performance and will help to guide the design of next-generation vascular grafts.

Review Article

Lipid-Based Intelligent Vehicle Capabilitized with Physical and Physiological Activation

Intelligent drug delivery system based on “stimulus-response” mode emerging a promising perspective in next generation lipid-based nanoparticle. Here, we classify signal sources into physical and physiological stimulation according to their origin. The physical signals include temperature, ultrasound, and electromagnetic wave, while physiological signals involve pH, redox condition, and associated proteins. We first summarize external physical response from three main points about efficiency, particle state, and on-demand release. Afterwards, we describe how to design drug delivery using the physiological environment in vivo and present different current application methods. Lastly, we draw a vision of possible future development.

Research Article

Highly Efficient and Selective Photocatalytic Nonoxidative Coupling of Methane to Ethylene over Pd-Zn Synergistic Catalytic Sites

Photocatalytic nonoxidative coupling of CH4 to multicarbon (C2+) hydrocarbons (e.g., C2H4) and H2 under ambient conditions provides a promising energy-conserving approach for utilization of carbon resource. However, as the methyl intermediates prefer to undergo self-coupling to produce ethane, it is a challenging task to control the selective conversion of CH4 to higher value-added C2H4. Herein, we adopt a synergistic catalysis strategy by integrating Pd-Zn active sites on visible light-responsive defective WO3 nanosheets for synergizing the adsorption, activation, and dehydrogenation processes in CH4 to C2H4 conversion. Benefiting from the synergy, our model catalyst achieves a remarkable C2+ compounds yield of 31.85 μmol·g-1·h-1 with an exceptionally high C2H4 selectivity of 75.3% and a stoichiometric H2 evolution. In situ spectroscopic studies reveal that the Zn sites promote the adsorption and activation of CH4 molecules to generate methyl and methoxy intermediates with the assistance of lattice oxygen, while the Pd sites facilitate the dehydrogenation of methoxy to methylene radicals for producing C2H4 and suppress overoxidation. This work demonstrates a strategy for designing efficient photocatalysts toward selective coupling of CH4 to higher value-added chemicals and highlights the importance of synergistic active sites to the synergy of key steps in catalytic reactions.

Research Article

Activation of Pancreatic Acinar FXR Protects against Pancreatitis via Osgin1-Mediated Restoration of Efficient Autophagy

Pancreatitis is the leading cause of hospitalization in gastroenterology, and no medications are available for treating this disease in current clinical practice. FXR plays an anti-inflammatory role in diverse inflammatory diseases, while its function in pancreatitis remains unknown. In this study, we initially observed a marked increase of nuclear FXR in pancreatic tissues of human patients with pancreatitis. Deleting the FXR in pancreatic acinar cells (FXRacinarΔ/Δ) led to more severe pancreatitis in mouse models of caerulein-induced acute and chronic pancreatitis, while the FXR agonist GW4064 significantly attenuated pancreatitis in caerulein or arginine-induced acute pancreatitis and caerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis. FXR deletion impaired the viability and stress responses of pancreatic exocrine organoids (PEOs) in vitro. Utilizing RNA-seq and ChIP-seq of PEOs, we identified Osgin1 as a direct target of FXR in the exocrine pancreas, which was also increasingly expressed in human pancreatitis tissues compared to normal pancreatic tissues. Pancreatic knockdown of Osgin1 by AAV-pan abolished the therapeutic effects of FXR activation on pancreatitis, whereas pancreatic overexpression of Osgin1 effectively alleviated caerulein-induced pancreatitis. Mechanistically, we found that the FXR-OSGIN1 axis stimulated autophagic flux in the pancreatic tissues and cell lines, which was considered as the intrinsic mechanisms through which FXR-OSGIN1 protecting against pancreatitis. Our results highlight the protective role of the FXR-OSGIN1 axis in pancreatitis and provided a new target for the treatment of this disease.