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The open access journal Research, published in association with CAST, publishes innovative, wide-ranging research in life sciences, physical sciences, engineering and applied science.
Research's Editorial Board includes international experts in fields ranging from life sciences to physical sciences. Tianhong Cui of University of Minnesota and Wei Huang of Northwestern Polytechnical University, China serve as the Editors-in-Chief of the journal.
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Synthesis of Two-Dimensional C–C Bonded Truxene-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks by Irreversible Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Cyclotrimerization
The synthesis of new C–C bonded two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) is highly desirable. Here, a simple but effective synthetic strategy has been developed using an irreversible Brønsted acid-catalyzed aldol cyclotrimerization reaction by virtue of truxene as a linkage. Nonolefin C–C bonded 2D truxene-based covalent organic frameworks (Tru-COFs) were constructed by polymerization of 1,3,5-triindanonebenzene (TDB). The structure formation was confirmed by wide-angle X-ray scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR. The results showed that the Tru-COFs were porous (645 m2/g) and chemically stable. Benzyl methylene in conjugated Tru-COFs more effectively produced photoinduced radicals than the model truxene compound. Due to the radical photoresponsiveness, Tru-COFs were efficient catalysts for photocatalytic oxidation of sulfides. We expect that this will provide a new synthetic methodology to obtain C–C bonded functional 2D COFs.
Fast Bulky Anion Conduction Enabled by Free Shuttling Phosphonium Cations
Highly conductive anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) are desirable for applications in various energy storage and conversion technologies. However, conventional AEMs with bulky HCO3- or Br- as counterion generally exhibit low conductivity because the covalent bonding restrains the tethered cationic group’s mobility and rotation. Here, we report an alternative polyrotaxane AEM with nontethered and free-shuttling phosphonium cation. As proved by temperature-dependent NMR, solid-state NMR, and molecular dynamics simulation, the phosphonium cation possesses a thermally trigged shuttling behavior, broader extension range, and greater mobility, thus accelerating the diffusion conduction of bulky anions. Owing to this striking feature, high HCO3- conductivity of 105 mS cm-1 at 90°C was obtained at a relatively lower ion-exchange capacity of 1.17 mmol g-1. This study provides a new concept for developing highly conductive anion-exchange membranes and will catalyze the exploration of new applications for polyrotaxanes in ion conduction processes.
Responsive Dual-Targeting Exosome as a Drug Carrier for Combination Cancer Immunotherapy
Recently, combination immunotherapy, which incorporates the activation of the immune system and inhibition of immune escape, has been proved to be a new powerful strategy for more efficient tumor suppression compared to monotherapy. However, the major challenge is how to integrate multiple immune drugs together and efficiently convey these drugs to tumor sites. Although a variety of nanomaterials have been exploited as carriers for targeting tumor issues and the delivery of multiple drugs, their potential toxicity, immune rejection, and stability are still controversial for clinical application. Here, we proposed endogenic exosomes as drug carriers to deliver two antibodies acting as tumor-targeting molecules and block checkpoint inhibitors with specific response to the tumor microenvironment and costimulatory molecules for further improvement of therapeutic effect. The versatile exosomes exhibit excellent biocompatibility and provide a combination immunotherapy platform with synergistic advantages of activation of immune response and inhibition of immune escape.
Time-Dependent Afterglow from a Single Component Organic Luminogen
Pure organic luminogens with long-persistent luminescence have been extensively studied, on account of their fundamental research significance and diverse utilizations in anticounterfeiting, bioimaging, encryption, organic light-emitting diodes, chemo-sensing, etc. However, time-dependent color-tunable afterglow is rarely reported, especially for single-component materials. In this work, we reported an organic luminogen with time-dependent afterglow, namely, benzoyleneurea (BEU), with multiple persistent room-temperature phosphorescence (p-RTP) and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) in single crystals. While the lifetime of TADF is relatively short (~1.2 ms), those for p-RTP are as long as around 369~754 ms. The comparable but different decay rates of diversified p-RTP emissions endow BEU crystals with obvious time-dependent afterglow. The existence of multiple emissions can be reasonably illustrated by the clustering-triggered emission (CTE) mechanism. Single-crystal structure illustrates that the combination of benzene ring and nonconventional chromophores of ureide helps facilitate divergent intermolecular interactions, which contribute to the formation of varying emissive species. Moreover, its methyl- and chloro-substituted derivatives show similar multiple p-RTP emissions. However, no time-dependent afterglows are observed in their crystals, due to the highly approaching lifetimes. The afterglow color variation of BEU crystals grants its applications in advanced anticounterfeiting field and information encryption.
Desymmetrization of Cyclic 1,3-Diketones under N-Heterocyclic Carbene Organocatalysis: Access to Organofluorines with Multiple Stereogenic Centers
Symmetric 1,3-diketones with fluorine or fluorinated substituents on the prochiral carbon remain to be established. Herein, we have developed a novel prochiral fluorinated oxindanyl 1,3-diketone and successfully applied these substrates in carbene-catalyzed asymmetric desymmetrization. Accordingly, a versatile strategy for asymmetric generation of organofluorines with fluorine or fluorinated methyl groups has been developed. Multiple stereogenic centers were selectively constructed with satisfactory outcomes. Structurally diverse enantioenriched organofluorines were generated with excellent results in terms of yields, diastereoselectivities, and enantioselectivities. Notably, exchanging fluorinated methyl groups to fluorine for this prochiral 1,3-diketones leads to switchable stereoselectivity. Mechanistic aspects and origin of stereoselectivity were studied by DFT calculations. Notably, some of the prepared organofluorines demonstrated competitive antibacterial activities.
Embryo-Engineered Nonhuman Primate Models: Progress and Gap to Translational Medicine
Animal models of human diseases are vital in better understanding the mechanism of pathogenesis and essential for evaluating and validating potential therapeutic interventions. As close relatives of humans, nonhuman primates (NHPs) play an increasingly indispensable role in advancing translational medicine research. In this review, we summarized the progress of NHP models generated by embryo engineering, analyzed their unique advantages in mimicking clinical patients, and discussed the remaining gap between basic research of NHP models to translational medicine.