Application examples of the superhydrophilic surfaces and superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by femtosecond laser. (a) Liquid repellence: water droplet rebounding on the superhydrophobic surface. (b) Self-cleaning: water droplets rolling away and taking up foreign dirt particles on a superhydrophobic surface. (c) Droplet manipulation: transferring a tiny water droplet by using a superhydrophobic surface with controllable adhesion. (d) Separating the mixture of water (blue) and oil (red) by a porous superhydrophobic PTFE sheet. (e) The anti-icing and icephobic property of the triple-scale superhydrophobic microstructure. (f) Superhydrophilic-superhydrophobic venation network for collecting water fog. (g) Superhydrophobicity making PDMS sheet with heavy load floating on water surface. (h) Enhance Raman spectroscopy after concentrating the solution droplet on the superhydrophobic substrate. (i) Patterning liquid by the superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic microstructures. (j) Cell culture on the laser-structured surfaces with different wettability. Reproduced from [38
] with the permission.