Application examples of the femtosecond laser-structured superoleophobic surfaces. (a) Underwater superoleophobicity preventing substrate from being polluted by oil contaminations in water. (b) Self-cleaning oil contaminants on an underwater superoleophobic surface after immersion in water. (c) Transferring tiny oil droplet by using an underwater superoleophobic surface as a “mechanical hand”. (d) Guiding oil droplets to move along the designed tracks. (e) Separation the mixture of water (blue) and oil (red) by using the prewetted porous underwater superoleophobic sheet. (f) Restricting oil in the special region by the underwater superoleophobic microstructures. Reproduced from [119
] with the permission.