Table 2: Surface area of a single nanoisland and the maximal number of ligands that can be accommodated.

Streptavidin Biotin-PEG-Vn96 Exosomes

Surface area of nano-island (A1) No. of ligands Surface area for Vn96 (A3) No. of Vn96 Surface area for exosomes (A4) No. of exosomes

3.486 x104 nm219764.49 x104 nm2128101.16 x105 nm29