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Figure 3: “Sticky” codon-associated ribosomal pausing facilitates downstream reading frame fidelity. (a) Proposed mRNA:rRNA interaction in eukaryotic translation. When the “sticky” codon reaches the exit site of the mRNA tunnel, the mRNA likely loops back towards the ribosome (top panel). In the absence of “sticky” codons, the mRNA takes on an extended conformation at the exit site (bottom panel). (b) Aggregation plots using RPFs derived from transcripts with (left) or without (right) pausing at the +12 nt position. Reading frames are color coded. The inserted bar graph shows averaged frame ratio in different regions as indicated. (c) Aggregation plots of transcripts aligned with the first AUG codon (white triangle) after the start codon (green triangle). RPFs were derived from HEK293 cells with (bottom) or without (top) amino acid starvation. Reading frames are color coded. The right side bar graphs show averaged frame ratio in different regions as indicated. (d) Aggregation plots of transcripts aligned with the first GGC codon (orange circle) after the start codon (green triangle). RPFs were derived from HEK293 cells with (bottom) or without (top) amino acid starvation. Reading frames are color coded. The right side bar graphs show averaged frame ratio in different regions as indicated.