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Figure 5: The magnetically controlled real-time photoelectric response of the nanocomposites in solution and its application for magnetic-field-direction sensor. (a) Schematic representation of the sample stage part. A cuvette containing the sample solution was placed in between the light source and the photodiode. A permanent magnet was used to dynamically control the orientation of the nanocomposites in XY plane. (b) Circuit diagram of the magnetic-field-direction sensor (left part) and an actuator (right part). (c) Extinction spectra and photoelectric response of the nanocomposites in solution when changing θ from 90 ° to 0°, by 10° each time. (d) Voltage plotted over θ angle and its sine fit. (e) Integration of the measured extinction from 1300 nm to 1700 nm of the nanocomposites in PEGDA solution plotted over θ angle and its sine fit. (f) Digital images showing the magnetic-field-direction sensor based actuator system. From left to right, the robotic arm moved accordingly when changing the direction of the external magnetic field.