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Figure 4: Cooperative shape deformations. (a) Connected “T” tube in the 0.1 M CaCl2 solution with combined alignment of microchannels at angles θ = 0° and θ = 90°. (b) Connected “H” tube in the 0.1 M CaCl2 solution with a combined alignment of microchannels at angles θ = 0° and θ = 90°. (c) Connected triangular tube in the 0.1 M CaCl2 solution with combined alignment of microchannels at angles θ = 0°, θ = 60°, and θ = 120°. (d) A double helix in the 0.1 M CaCl2 solution with alignment of microchannels at angle θ = 45°. (e) Connected torsional helix structure in the 0.1 M CaCl2 solution with a combined alignment of microchannels at angles θ = 45° and θ = 135°. (f) Various artificial six-petal flower structures in the 0.1 M CaCl2 solution comprised of microchannels aligned at 0°, 90° (g) and 0°/90° (h). (i) shows the dynamic opening and closing processes of an artificial flower in the 0.1 M NaCl solution, where the petals were partially coated with a blue dye to demonstrate the dynamic inside-out shape transformations of the hydrogels. The scale bars are 1 cm.