Alt text
Figure 16: THz modulator based on coding and programmable metamaterials. Panel . The 1-bit digital metasurfaces and coding metasurfaces. (a) Two types of elements: “0” and “1.” (b) Different phase responses of two elements in a range of frequencies. (c) Different encodings produce different modulation effects. (d) Simulation calculation result. Reproduced from [87]. Panel . The fabrication and measurement results of the coding metasurfaces. (a) The fabrication process for the coding metasurfaces. (b) The measured and simulated backward scattering coefficients of the 2-bit coding metasurfaces. Reproduced from [88].