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Figure 5: Optically tuned THz modulator based on 2D materials. Panel . (a) Schematic view of graphene on Si sample. (b) Normalized transmission (left) and depth (right) from the three phthalocyanine structures. Reproduced from [58]. Panel . Layer structure of the THz modulator based on WS2 and Si. Reproduced from [61]. Panel . The modulator consists of a single-layer graphene sheet on a germanium substrate. The beam of the THz wave is completely overlapped by the laser beam. Reproduced from [59]. Panel . A sketch map of the experiment. Reproduced from [62]. Panel . Experimental setup of the THz-CW for measuring transmission and reflection. Reproduced from [45]. Panel . (a) The AFM image of liquid-exfoliated WS2 nanosheets. (b) The image of the prepared WS2-Si sample. (c) Thickness distribution map of WS2 film measured by white light interferometer. Reproduced from [63].