Alt text
Figure 7: Electrically tuned THz modulator based on semiconductors and metamaterials. Panel . (a) The structure of the THz modulator. (b) Gate voltage dependence of the modulation signal (upper). Peak-to-peak amplitude of the modulator signal vs. gate voltage (nether). Reproduced from [66]. Panel . (a) Geometry and dimensions of the THz metamaterial switch/modulator. (b) Frequency-dependent transmitted intensity of THz radiation. Reproduced from [8]. Panel . (a) Three-dimensional schematic illustration of the plasmon-based THz modulator. (b) Dependence of transmission on gate voltage at different temperatures. Reproduced from [67].