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Figure 8: Electrically tuned THz modulator based on graphene. Panel . (a) Schematic of the proof-of-concept graphene THz modulator. (b) Schematic of the THz modulator. (c) Schematic of the device, and electric field distribution when the substrate thickness and plasmonic resonance are matched to an odd multiple of a quarter wavelength of the THz wave. Reproduced from [68]. Panel . (a) Schematic of the THz modulator. (b) Normalized reflectance (R/R (VCNP)). Reproduced from [69]. Panel . (a) Schematic of the device, and electric field distribution. (b) Operation mechanism of the self-gated graphene pair. Reproduced from [70].