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Figure 9: Electrically tuned THz modulator based on graphene. Panel . (a) Overview of the quantum cascade laser integrated graphene modulator. (b) Light-current-voltage (LIV) characteristics of the THz CCG QCL at different heat sink temperatures. (Upper) Laser spectra as a function of pump current I. (Nether) Reproduced from [71]. Panel . (a) Right: schematic of the light interacting with graphene CSRR. Left: schematic of the graphene CSRR. (b) Extinction spectrum in transmission of the graphene CSRRs (upper). Distributions of normalized z-component of electric field Ez at 1.38THz, 4.33THz, and 5THz, respectively (nether). Reproduced from [72].