Table 3: The comparison of electrically tuned modulation properties based on different substrate materials.

WorkDescriptionYearFrequencyModulation depthRef.

Huang Y. D.Plasmonic2016-93%[67]
Zhou G.VO220170.3-1.0THz>50%[100]
Sensale-R. B.Graphene201210THz100%[106]
Liang G.Graphene20153THz94%-100%[71]
Huang Z.Monolayer Graphene20181-7THz>85%[72]
Chikhi N.Liquid crystals20181-3THz>90%[107]
Kaya E.Flexible Substrate20180.2-1.5THz100%[74]