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Figure 2: The investigation of the Li-plating and Li-stripping process on copper foil in Li/Cu half cells. (a) The initial polarization curves of the plating/stripping behaviour of Li on copper foil at the current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 with a fixed capacity of 0.5 mA h cm-2 in 1m, 3m, and 5m electrolytes at 27°C. (b) The nucleation overpotential values under different salt concentrations and working temperatures. (c) Average CE of the first 100 stable cycles at the current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 with a fixed capacity of 0.5 mAh cm-2 under the condition of different concentration electrolytes (1m, 3m, and 5m) and temperatures (27°C, 60°C, and 80°C). (d) The CE of the Li-plating/-stripping process on copper foil at the current density of 1 mA cm-2 with a fixed capacity of 2 mAh cm-2 in 1m and 3m electrolytes at 27°C and 60°C.