Table 1: Comparisons of ORAMs based on 2D materials with other material systems.

Active layerThree /two terminalControl gate/floating gateSwitching mechanismLight wavelength (nm)Light intensity (μW cm−2)Light pulse width (ms)Non-volatile responsivity (A/W)Max On/off Retention (s)Programming voltage (V)Multi-levelEnduran-ceRef.

graphene/MoS2ThreeSiO2/--Charge trapping635 nm, white light37.630-100--<210550Yes--[45]

MoS2ThreeFunctionalized SiO2/--Charge trapping450, 650 nm0.019 μW1-3000--470010480Yes--[41]

CuIn7Se11ThreeSiO2/--Charge trapping543 nm1.5×10550-500--<105080----[40]

MoS2/PVP/AuNPsThreeSiO2/AuNPsCharge trapping655 nm0.1-1000 μW1000800010710410Yes200[42]

MoS2/PZTThreeSiO2/--Ferroelectrichalogen bulb150 W----221046--500[43]

WSe2/BNThreeSiO2/--Charge trapping410-750 nm2 nW500--1064.5×10420Yes (128)200[46]

BP/BNThreeSiO2/--Charge trapping410-500 nm2 nW5001.2×1074154×10415Yes200[46]

MoS2/h-BN/grapheneTwo--/grapheneCharge trapping458,638, 725, 811 nm2nW-160nW10-20002×104 @458 nm@2nW1064.5×10410Yes (18)104[47]

BP/ZnOTwo--Oxygen filament 380, 532, 633, 785 nm20-500----106--5----[48]

MoS2/PbSThreeSiO2/--Charge trapping850, 1310, 1550 nm2710001.2×104@1940 nm150104No programming voltage requiredYes2000[49]

MoS2/NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+Two--Charge trapping980 nm0-5×105----1041040.5Yes200[50]

CH3NH3 Two--Charge trappingWhite light0-320010001×1031041040.1Yes400[3]

Ce /Al Two--Charge trapping499, 560, 638 nm40020000130104No programming voltage requiredYes30[4]

ZnO nanorods/Nb-doped SrTiO3Two--Charge trapping365 nm2.5×106--1.31031042----[51]

ROT300/VOTc/ZnO nanparticlesThreeAl/ZnO nanparticlesCharge trapping850 nm80-105001000--104106No programming voltage requiredYes--[52]

BBTNDTThreeSiO2/--Charge trappingWhite light4000010000433106106120----[53]