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Editorial Policies

Research advocates and adheres to the highest standards for accurate and ethical publication of science and uses a selective peer review process. The scientific editors for Research evaluate each submission and those manuscripts that warrant further consideration for publication are sent out for in-depth review by external referees. Research does not accept resubmissions of manuscripts that have already been rejected from Research for reasons related to novelty or impact. Papers selected for publication will be edited to improve readability and ensure the use of plain language whenever possible.

For general guidance on using the manuscript submission system, please read the tutorials for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. For questions on specific functionality, explore the Editorial Manager video library.

Animal Studies

For all animal experimentation described in the manuscript, Research requires that authors state in the Methods section their adherence to the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals or the equivalent. Species, strain, sex, and age of laboratory animals should be provided in the main text or Supplementary Materials.

For genetically modified animals and to avoid confounding effects of inbred strain background, littermate controls should generally be used, although exceptions may be allowed. Justification for other control animals should be included. Authors should fully describe the source of their animals and number of times backcrosses were performed.

Authorship and Conflict of Interest

To be included as an “author,” a researcher must meet the criteria for authorship laid out in the definition of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which states that authorship should be based on whether an individual:

  1. Provided substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work.
  2. Participated in drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
  3. Participated in final approval of the version to be published.
  4. Provided agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Research does not permit ghost, guest, or honorary authorship. “Ghost authorship” refers to any context where an individual has made author-level contributions to the paper but is not included in the author list. This is not permitted for papers published in Research. “Guest authorship” refers to any context when someone who has not met all criteria of authorship is listed as an author. Individuals who have participated in generation of the research paper but who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section of a paper alongside a brief indication of the nature of their contribution.

Prior to publication, a completed copy of the Authorship and Conflict of Interest Form must also be received from each author listed on the manuscript. This form asks authors to specify the nature and level of their contribution to the article, their understanding regarding the obligation to share data and materials, and any affiliations, funding sources or financial holdings that might raise questions about possible sources of bias.

Research will send an email to all authors to confirm receipt of each paper. Submission of a paper that has not first been approved by all authors listed will result in immediate rejection without appeal. Any changes in authorship following submission must be approved in writing by all of the original authors.

For Each Author: Download the Authorship and Conflict of Interest Form.

Form may be printed out, signed, and scanned or signed using an electronic signature. Once completed, please upload the files into Editorial Manager alongside your manuscript files.

Data and Materials Availability after Publication

After publication, all data and materials necessary to understand, assess and extend the conclusions of the manuscript must be available to any reader of Research. All reasonable requests for data or materials must be fulfilled.

Any restrictions on the availability of data, codes, or materials, including fees and restrictions on original data obtained from other sources must be disclosed to the editors as must any Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) that place constraints on providing the data or materials used or produced in this research. Please disclose this information when completing the Authorship and Conflict of Interest Form.

Unreasonable restrictions on data or material availability may prevent publication.

All computer codes involved in the creation or analysis of data must also be available to all readers. Fossils or other rare specimens must be deposited in a public museum or repository and available for research. Patents (whether applications or awards to the authors or home institutions) related to the work should also be declared and Material Transfer Agreements must be included in the acknowledgements

Embargo Policy

Accepted papers will be published online in an unformatted version as an Article in Press while the paper undergoes production. This accepted version is fully citable.

If research is under an embargo that would be violated by such publication practices, please let the editorial office know upon acceptance.

Image Permissions

Papers may occasionally include images or figures created by a third-party (i.e., a non-author). Express permission must be received from the copyright holder prior to publication. The copyright holder, who could be a publisher, corporation, or individual, must complete the Image Permission form which the author will upload alongside the manuscript files..

For Copyright Holders: Download the Image Permission Form.

Form may be printed out, signed, and scanned or signed using an electronic signature. Once completed, please upload the files into Editorial Manager alongside your manuscript files.

Informed Consent for Human Studies

Informed consent must be obtained for studies on humans after the nature and possible consequences of the studies are explained. A statement that informed consent was obtained must also appear in the manuscript. All research on humans must have approval from the institutional IRB (Institutional Review Board) or an equivalent body. The editors reserve the right to request IRB documents associated with a particular paper. Gender and age of all subjects should be provided in the main text or Supplementary Materials.

Licenses to Publish

Before Research accepts a manuscript, each author must also sign and submit a License to Publish Agreement that allows CAST exclusive rights to publish and use your contribution. As an open access journal, Research publishes under a CC BY license, which allows readers to distribute, adapt, or reuse articles, including for commercial purposes.

For Each Author: Download the License to Publish Form.

Form may be printed out, signed, and scanned or signed using an electronic signature. Once completed, please upload the files into Editorial Manager alongside your manuscript files.

Prior Publication and Related Papers

Research will not consider any paper or component of a paper that has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere in any language. Distribution on the internet and conference proceedings may be considered prior publication and may compromise the originality of the paper, although we do allow posting on certain not-for-profit preprint servers such as Please contact the editors with questions regarding this policy or allowable postings. In addition, copies of papers submitted to other journals by any of the authors that relate to a research article submitted to Research must be included with the submission.

Reporting Guidelines

Authors are encouraged to follow published standard reporting guidelines for their study discipline. Many guidelines can be found at the EQUATOR website.

Security Concerns

Authors and reviewers are expected to notify editors if a manuscript could be considered to report dual use research of concern (DURC). The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity has defined DURC as “life sciences research that, based on current understanding, can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be directly misapplied to pose a significant threat with broad potential consequences to public health and safety, agricultural crops and other plants, animals, the environment, materiel, or national security”. Papers identified as possible DURC will be brought to the attention of the Editor-in-Chief for further evaluation. If necessary, outside reviewers with expertise in the area will be consulted.

Unpublished Data and Personal Communications

Citations to unpublished data and personal communications cannot be used to support claims in the paper. Papers will be held for publication until all “in press” citations are published.